NEWBIE - How to workout functional components?

Sorry if this is in the wrong category, if it is let me know and i will move it to the right place.

So i am trying to workout how to create a fairly complex circuit for a 3d printing project I’m doing. I know what feature components i want i.e USB-C, HDMI etc… however i don’t know where to start with functional components i.e Resistors, Capacitors, Transistors etc…

Is there any tips or process anyone could let me know so i can begin working this out.

From a very basic level I’m assuming i need to create a circuit with the feature components and then workout the voltage and ampage for input and output. at which point i can work out the resistance needed. But i don’t really know if this is correct OR if it is i don’t fully understand when i would want to consider the other functional components.

Any help would be much appreciated!

In KiCad standard libraries such symbols are in Device library.

That suggest you are asking not about how to do things in KiCad, but how to do electronic at all.
The better place would be the electronic forums like eevblog. But I write it following what others have written here in past. I never used that forum myself.

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That’s right, we are trying to keep this forum focused on KiCad. Not always succesfully, mind you, but I suggest you come back here when you have a question about how to use KiCad to design this.