How do I fix short circuits?

sometime when working on multilayer PCBs I come across some vias that were supposed to connect to two leads of a component shorted together. This is a problem maybe from the manufacturer because when I check on the KICAD designs, I have never seen any shorted vias within it.
how do I fix this shorts whenever I come across them instead of sending the component back to the manufacturer?

Do you mean instead of sending the pcb back to the manufacturer?
Isn’t the short on the pcb?
If the short is on the component; what type of bad component are you discussing? Bad IC; bad resistor or bad capacitor; etc. as much detail as you are able to provide?
Are you able to locate the short on the pcb? (This can sometimes be difficult. If you cannot locate a pcb short I can recommend a method.)

Before you send Gerber files to a manufacturer you should always do a full DRC check first.
PCB Editor / Inspect / Design Rules Checker and carefully inspect and fix any issues it flags.

From your initial post, it is difficult to tell whether the problem is with components or with the pcb.

If you are buying components from an established distributor, it is exceedingly rare to get components which are completely bad (as in shorted.)

Some ICs do have performance issues which the experienced engineer might complain about. I am not discussing that.

In situations where a beginner encounters “bad components”, I can almost always safely bet that “bad components” are not the problem, unless the person is buying counterfeit components. Counterfeit components are a big problem these days due to the “chip shortage”. The best defense is to buy components from mainstream established distributors.

the short is on the capacitor where the ground and the live have been connected together

My gerber files have no any single problem since when i try to check, there is no interconnection between the two terminals of the capacitor. But when the design is received such errors do occur although not regularly

To me I cannot tell where the problem is coming from but what am sure about is that the error does not originate from my design work

I think that others on this forum will agree with me that such completely bad components almost never happen (99.99% good parts is probably not overstating it) if you buy name branded components from a mainstream distributor. I have been engineering since 1975 and I cannot remember when a new capacitor was ever shorted. YES such failures are that rare. So if you are seeing a significant number of bad components, there is something going wrong on your end. Most likely:

  1. You are getting counterfeit components. or possibly:
  2. Something is happening in your design or assembly process which is damaging the capacitors.

I HAVE seen it happen that some 500V rated ceramic capacitors in a power supply were igniting the pcb because the capacitors cracked or fractured as a result of the assembly process. (I think it was an 1808 chip capacitor operating at 400V, and it might have drawn 1 Amp.) So 400W in a small chip capacitor would probably get hot enough to melt copper.

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Is it possible for you to remove the component in question?
I’m assuming the board is not usable in its current state.

What type of capacitor is it? Is it Surface mounted or leaded?

the capacitor is leaded. I have managed to solve the issue by completely removing the component and mounted it in a different place on the board and then soldered it manually. It is working as i expected. Thanks for your inputs

Good your board is not working.

Consider, if the removed capacitor is working in a different location I would look for evidence of solder shorts.

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The circuit is now working. I had to connect the circuit at the end of the solder accordingly. It is wonderful now.

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